Indian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research

Print ISSN: 2394-2746

Online ISSN: 2394-2754


Indian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research (IJOGR) open access, peer-reviewed quarterly journal publishing since 2014 and is published under auspices of the Innovative Education and Scientific Research Foundation (IESRF), aim to uplift researchers, scholars, academicians, and professionals in all academic and scientific disciplines. IESRF is dedicated to the transfer of technology and research by publishing scientific journals, research content, providing professional’s membership, and conducting conferences, seminars, and award more...

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Sharda B Ahmed, Sushma Mogri

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Application of PALM-COEIN FIGO classification in diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) patients

Original Article

Author Details : Sharda B Ahmed, Sushma Mogri

Volume : 5, Issue : 2, Year : 2018

Article Page : 278-281

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Objective: The aim is to categorize women with AUB as per the PALM-COEIN classification system as this is a step towards cause based diagnosis and focused management of patients. The acronym PALM-COEIN comes from arranging 9 basic categories of the classification system. The PALM group comprises the structural entities, which can be measured visually or by using imaging techniques and histopathology. The COEIN group comprises the non-organic types which cannot be defined by imaging or histopathology.
Materials and Methods: The study comprises 350 women of reproductive age with AUB for minimum 3 months time span. It describes and observes AUB in amount, interval and frequency for women attending outpatient Gynae department of AIIMS, Udaipur (Raj) from Nov 16 to Oct 17. They were assessed on the basis of structured history, physical examination, local pelvis examination, investigations, USG findings and endometrial histopathological report. Cause of AUB was determined and treatment was given to the patient as appropriated by categorization done in agreement with the PALM-COEIN classification.

Results: The most prevalent cause of AUB was ovulatory dysfunction (n=99, 28.2%). Next common cause was leiomyoma (n=90, 25.7%), followed by endometrial causes (n=52, 14.5%), adenomyosis (n=30, 8.5%), not yet classified (n=32, 9.7%), Malignancy & Hyperplasia (n=28, 8.1%), Polyp (n=9, 2.5%), Iatrogenic (n=7, 2.2%) and Coagulopathy (n=1, 0.3%).
Conclusion: The PALM-COEIN classification helps to practically ascertain the cause of AUB, and thereby effectively adopt the correct treatment for AUB patients.

Keywords: Abnormal uterine bleeding, AUB, Classification system, Polyp leiomyoma, Adenomyosis, Ovulation, Malignancy

How to cite : Ahmed S B, Mogri S, Application of PALM-COEIN FIGO classification in diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) patients. Indian J Obstet Gynecol Res 2018;5(2):278-281

Copyright © 2018 by author(s) and Indian J Obstet Gynecol Res. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (

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